Thursday, 20 February 2020

Nechama Leibowitz (the early years)

From RRW
Guest Blogger: Mitchell First

                                          Nehama Leibowitz: The Early Years
                I just came across a very interesting book: Nehama Leibowitz: Teacher and Bible Scholar.  The author, Yael Unterman, worked on this book for ten years and it spans 600 pages! It was published by Urim in 2009. It warrants many columns! Here I will limit myself to the story of her early years.
               As Unterman points out, Nehama Leibowitz preferred to be called “Nehama.” Using only her first name evokes her humility and warmth. That is how Unterman refers to her and how I will as well.
               Nehama hated publicity. She would say: “I’m not worth writing about- go learn Torah instead.”  But after her death, much has been written about her. There is a motto that people follow in these situations:  acharei mot kedoshim emor” (= after saintly people pass away, speak). So even those who kept silent during her life (pursuant to her request) were willing to speak her praise after her death!
               Nehama requested that there be no eulogy at her funeral and her request was honored. The author continues:  “Nevertheless, Nehama’s biography belongs not to her alone, but also to the Jewish people whom she loved so much, and to history, and it is under this premise that the book was written.” The author continues: “The only apology owed her is in writing this work in English, for she believed that the Hebrew language is the only proper medium for all Jewish life.”
              Nehama was born in Latvia in 1905.  She was born two years after her brother Yeshayahu. (On this famous individual, see below.)
              Her family was religious and broadly educated. The children spoke Hebrew with their father, and German or Yiddish with their mother. Her parents’ social circles included many non-Observant Jews. Her father created weekly Tanach quizzes for his children. Her mother died early on.
               Nehama did not go to the schools in Latvia.  She and her brother were taught by hired teachers.
               In 1919, due to the creation of the independent republic of Latvia, the family was forced to move to Berlin. Berlin of the 1920’s included many Jewish giants. For example, on the street, Nehama may have passed R. Menahem Mendel Schneerson, and R.  Yoseph Dov Soloveitchik.  One Habad Hasid insisted to her: “Everyone knows that you sat drinking coffee with the Rebbe and R. Soloveitchik in the caf├ęs in Berlin!” Nehama replied: “It could be that we sat at the same table for lunch, but if we did, I didn’t know it.”
             Another story (slightly contradictory to the above) is that Nehama was told of the brilliant young Jewish scholar, Rabbi Yosef Dov Soloveitchik who sat in the library “behind the tallest stack of books.” With a description like that, she located him easily, but never introduced herself. (But in another version of this story, it was he who was told to look for her, but he could not locate her because she was hidden behind her tower of books!)
            Reportedly, her mother never allowed her into the kitchen! She was treated as the intellectual equal of her brother.
              She spent the years 1925-30 in the Universities of Berlin, Heidelberg, and Marburg, studying English and German philology and literature, and Bible studies.
               At the same time, she advanced her Jewish studies at the Hochschule fur die Wissenschaft des Judentums. This was the only institution where she did any formal learning of Jewish studies. The college’s doors were open to all, including women and non-Jews, and it was the closest thing to a yeshiva that a woman could attend at the time. Here, as nowhere else at the time, Nehama could interact on an equal footing with Jewish scholars, rabbis and rabbinical students. One of her classmates was Leo Strauss. Strauss taught Nehama philosophy, reading Plato with her in the original Greek, while she taught him Hebrew, studying Saadiah Gaon’s Emunot Ve-deot and other Hebrew works with him.
                This is the era when Nehama began to teach high school students. She used the Ivrit be-Ivrit method, so that Hebrew might be experienced as a living language. This technique was first used by Eliezer Ben Yehuda in 1883, but it was unheard of in German schools at that time.                      
                  She married her father’s brother Yedidyah Lipman Leibowitz in Berlin in 1930. (She did not have to change her name!) He was 31 years older than her! He died in 1970. Decades later she said to a friend about marrying her much older uncle: “This was the wisest decision I ever made, and I have been extremely happy my entire life!”  The only thing she regretted was never having children. (Of course, her thousands of students are her “children”!)
                   The couple left Germany at the end of 1930.  After they arrived in Israel, her first position was teaching at the Mizrachi Teachers Seminary of Jerusalem. She did this for over 20 years. From 1957, she taught Bible at Tel Aviv University.  After she came to Israel in 1930, she only left one time, when she went to meet her parents in Europe and accompany them to settle in Israel.
                   A future column will be about her weekly “gilyonot” (questions about the parsha) which she mailed out to thousands over the years and graded their responses!
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               Regarding her brother Yeshayahu:  Wikipedia describes him as follows:  He was “an Israeli Orthodox Jewish public intellectual and polymath. He was professor of biochemistry, organic chemistry, and neurophysiology at the Hebrew University…, as well as a prolific writer on Jewish thought and western philosophy. He was known for his outspoken views on ethics, religion, and politics.”
              It is of interest that in the original Encyclopaedia Judaica (1972), he has his own entry with a photo, while Nehama’s entry is a very small one subsumed within his. (Unterman suggests that the original Encyclopaedia Judaica was guilty in general of neglecting women.) The updated Encyclopaedia Judaica (2006) grants Nehama her own entry.
               P.S. There is a story of two brothers, one a philosophy professor and the other a history professor. They used to argue which was more important, history or philosophy. Eventually, it was the Encyclopaedia Judaica that decided the issue. They both had entries, but only the history professor had his entry with a photo! See the entries for Irving and Jacob Agus! (I thank Richie Schiffmiller for sharing this story with me.)
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Mitchell First can be reached at MFirstAtty@aol.com. Like Nehama, he avoids the kitchen. He is hoping to get into a future edition of the Encyclopaedia Judaica. For more of his articles, see his website rootsandrituals.org.

The history of non-aggression pacts in Islam

From RRW

Saturday, 15 February 2020

Our Debt to Previous Generations

Originally published 4/7/08, 8:54 AM, Eastern Daylight Time.

From our friend Cantor Richard Wohlberg [and our Mentor Rav Sholom Gold]:

A deeper meaning of the striking Mishnah in Avos 2:10,13,14), which adds yet another dimension to our interpretation:
"Rabban Yohanan ben Zakkai had five disciples… He said to them, 'Go out and see what is the best characteristic to which an individual ought cleave. R. Eliezer says, a good eye; R. Yehoshua says, a good friend; R. Yose says, a good neighbor; R. Shimon says, ha'ro'eh et ha'nolad to see that which will be born. R. Elazar says, a good heart.
[Rabban Yohanan] then said to them, 'Go out and see which is the worst characteristic from which an individual ought flee?' R. Eliezer says, an evil eye; R. Yehoshua says, an evil friend; R. Yose says, an evil neighbor; R. Shimon says, to borrow and not repay; R. Eliezer says, an evil heart.
One of the fascinating aspects of this Mishnah is that only R. Shimon seems to have bypassed the parallel structure of the two halves of the Mishnah: according to him, the good characteristic towards which one must aspire is the ability to see what is yet to be born, the outcome of events and experiences, the opposite of which he defines as to borrow and not repay rather than as not to see that which will be born, not to be aware of the outcome of events (which we could expect to find). It could very well be that his intent is precisely the parallel structure; after all, one who borrows and doesn't repay was generally not sufficiently aware when he borrowed the money that pay-day will soon arrive, and that he'd better be prepared for that day with sources from which to repay his debt. Be that as it may, R. Shimon's unique formulation within the Mishnah cries out for further commentary.
I saw the following beautiful vort: Rav Shalom Gold of Har Nof, Jerusalem once suggested another interpretation for ha'ro'eh es ha'nolad: not one who sees that which will be born (which in Hebrew would be yivaled) but rather one who sees from whom he was born, one who understands that he did not emerge from an empty vacuum and realizes that he has a certain debt to pay to the previous generations which formed him. Once we realized our debt to pay to the previous generations (which formed us), we would possess a good eye, choose good friends and neighbors, and contain a good heart. It's all about remembering the past, applying it to the present and recognizing the consequences to our future.
-Cantor Richard Wohlberg

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Kol Tuv / Best Regards,
Rabbi Rich Wolpoe

Thursday, 13 February 2020

The Meaning of “Yareach” (=Moon)

From RRW
Guest Blogger: Mitchell First

                                      The Meaning of “Yareach” (=Moon)

      Most nouns in Hebrew derive from a verb. Let us try to figure out what verb was the root of this one. Unfortunately, Yod-Resh-Chet never functions as a verb in Tanach. But wait. With a slight alteration, we can see the verb Aleph-Resh-Chet.  This verb means: “travel, wander.” It turns out that the widespread scholarly view of the Hebrew word “yareach” is that it is related to this root Aleph-Resh-Chet. Most likely, in the ancient world, the moon was viewed as the “wandering/traveling object in the sky.” (See, e.g., The Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament entry for Y-R-Ch.  This view is also mentioned in the concordance of  Mandelkern and in the dictionary of Jastrow.)
      What about that place name “Yericho”? I have seen it suggested that it derives from Y-R-Ch as well. The ancient Canaanites used to worship the moon. Perhaps this is what was going on at that site originally. Yericho is a very old city. It existed for thousands of years prior to Yehoshua.
       Now let us look anew at the following Biblical words with the root Aleph-Resh-Chet:
                Oraiach:  The original meaning of this word is not “guest.” It is “wanderer, traveler.”
                Orach:  This word means “path” because it is something that one wanders/travels along.
                Aruchah: Probably this word did not originally mean “meal,” but “food for the journey” or “food for a traveler.”
                Orchah as in “orchat Yishmaeilim” (Gen. 37:25, story of Yosef): This word means “caravan,” derived from the wander/travel meaning. (It appears only one other time in Tanach, at Isa. 21:13.)
         (Note for my advanced readers: Most likely, the original root of “yareach,” in Proto-Semitic, was Vav-Resh-Chet. But in Hebrew, roots generally do not begin with Vav, so Proto-Semitic “Vav” invariably turns to “Yod” in Hebrew. In this particular root, the initial “Vav” also turned into an initial “Aleph.”)
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        A later development of the word Y-R-Ch is the “month” meaning. See, e.g., Ex. 2:2; the baby Moshe was hidden for “sheloshah yerachim.” A month is the period of time (29 days and a fraction) that it takes the moon to grow from a crescent, attain fullness, and then wane to its original state.
        What is the root of the word “Taarich”= date? According to one source I saw (which may not be accurate), it first appears in Hebrew in the 11th century. It seems to have always been spelled in Hebrew with a “caf” as the last letter. But scholars have pointed out, based on the spelling of its Arabic cognate,  that the Hebrew word should have been spelled with a “chet.” Once we realize this, then we understand that this word derives from Y-R-Ch with its “month” meaning.
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            Since we discussed the moon, we should also discuss the sun. (We don’t want the sun to be jealous!)   “Sh-M-Sh” is the word for “sun” in many of the Semitic languages. But its etymology is uncertain. (In Ugaritic, the word for sun is “Sh-P-Sh.” This probably derived from an original “Sh-M-Sh.”)
         We all know the verb “Sh-M-Sh”= to serve. But this verb appears nowhere in the Hebrew portion of Tanach. (It is found in the Aramaic portion of Tanach, at Dan. 7:10.)
          One approach to “shemesh”=sun is that the word is a primary noun. I.e., it is not derived from any verb; rather, the noun preceded the verb.
          Then one can take the next step and theorize that since the sun was worshipped by some, the verb “shamash” arose in Aramaic with the meaning “to serve the sun.” Then in a later stage, it expanded to mean “to serve” in general. But this is all speculation.
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          On the subject of the sun, let us discuss the etymology of the continent names “Europe” and “Asia.” The etymology of each is disputed. But there is a mainstream view that connects each to words that we are familiar with.
        With regard to “Europe,” in Akkadian (a Semitic language that is the language of ancient Assyria and Babylonia), they have a root cognate to our “Ayin-Resh-Bet” that means “enter.” Most modern scholars believe that, in Hebrew, “erev” is called this because it is the time when the sun has set and early man (in the ancient Near East) viewed it as having entered into its resting location. This is the explanation for “Europe,” and also for the related word: “maarav”=west.  (The “set/enter” meaning of the verb A-R-B is perhaps seen in the Tanach at Prov. 7:9 and Judg. 19:9. It may be implicit in the A-R-B of “weaving” as well.)
         With regard to “Asia,” we all know the root Yod-Tzade-Aleph=“go out” in Hebrew. It has a cognate “asu” in Akkadian. From the perspective of someone in the ancient Near East, the sun went out of its resting place in the morning in the east.   Accordingly, the scholar Ernest Klein writes that Asia originally meant “the Region of the Rising Sun” and Europe originally meant “the Region of the Setting Sun”!   But again other scholars offer different explanations for “Europe” and “Asia.”
         Finally, let us discuss the word “yamin.” It means both “right” and “south.”  For the latter, see, e.g., Tehillim 89:13. Why should that be? The answer is that “east” (=towards the sun) was the natural forward direction in the ancient Near East. Accordingly, “right” was the equivalent of “south.”  This is of course unlike modern times, where we generally view the forward direction as northward. (This seems to be the basis for the marketing theme of Northwell Health: “Look North”!)
          Also, the country “Yemen,” at the southern end of the Arabian peninsula, derives its name from a cognate of “yamin.”
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            I would like to acknowledge the site balashon.com for the insight on the original meaning of moon=Yod-Resh-Chet, and its relation to Aleph-Resh-Chet (and for the material on the meanings of “Europe” and “Asia.”) I only discovered this entire topic by accident. I was searching that site for an article on some other topic, and then accidentally came across this material. (This occurs to me often there!) This is one of the reasons I decided to make my own website. I see how much people can learn this way, even accidentally.
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Mitchell First is a personal injury attorney and Jewish history scholar. He can be reached at MFirstAtty@aol.com. For more of his articles, please visit his website rootsandrituals.org. P.S., did you know that the book Goodnight Moon [update]has already sold over 48 million copies!